Topic: Analysis of the article On social logic in our country (from the East-West Ethics and Ethics by Phan Chau Trinh).
Lecture: On social ethics in our country – Ms. Thuy Nhan ( teacher)
Phan Chau Trinh (1872-1926) self-proclaimed Tu Can, alias Tay Ho, from Tay Loc village, Tien Phuoc district, Tam Ky district. (Now Tay Ho village, Tam Loc commune, Phu Ninh district, Quang Nam province), he is a patriotic philanthropist who advocates for saving the country by taking advantage of the French colonialists, abolishing the feudal system of the Southern dynasties. reform in all aspects, aiming to make the people rich and the country strong. He was always conscious of using literature to propagate and mobilize the revolution.
The typical works of Phan Chau Trinh include: Early French Conquest (1906), Tinh Quoc Soul Ca II (1907, 1922), Tay Ho Thi Tap (1904 – 1914), Sante Thi Tap (1914-1915). ), Seven Hearings (1922), East-West Ethics and Ethics (1925), …
The excerpt On social morality in our country belongs to part III of the article East-West Ethics and Ethics written and delivered by Phan Chau Trinh on the night of November 19, 1925 at the Youth Association in Saigon. The content of the excerpt exudes the courage of a patriot who dares to expose the dark reality of society and upholds democratic ideas. The author asserts that the propagation of social morality is very urgent and important to restore people’s sense of duty to the country and people; directing people towards the goal of gaining sovereignty, independence, freedom and building a bright future for the country. The audience of Phan Chau Trinh’s speech was first the audience and then the entire Vietnamese people. The passage exhibits a unique political style: sometimes slow, gentle, sometimes sharp, strong, and persuasive.
The content of each part of the excerpt is linked together as follows:
In our country today, social morality is almost nonexistent. The reason is that our people lack a sense of union, do not know how to defend each other and preserve common interests. The king and mandarin were greedy, selfish, deliberately impoverishing the people both mentally and physically. Therefore, in order for Vietnam to be free and independent, it is necessary to first propagate social morality, build unions to take care of the common good, take care of each other’s interests, and proceed to overthrow the feudal system. corrupt, corrupt.
First, we must learn the term socialism. Phan Chau Trinh’s concept of socialism is not the same as Marx’s concept of socialism. Phan Chau Trinh believes that the history of human society goes up along the family – nation – society path and corresponds to the sequential development of family morality, national morality and social morality. . Marx asserted that the history of all societies is the history of class struggle.
The social morality that the author mentions in this excerpt has the content associated with the sense of readiness for the common good, the spirit of solidarity to help each other in a group for social progress. Morality in the West has developed through three stages, from family, to nation, to society. In the Middle Ages, new morality was within the family. When nations were formed (around the sixteenth century), there was a national morality, each nation taking care of its own strengthening and development. It was only after the first world war that ideas on social morality were really promoted and built. Social morality is the morality of socialism, respecting the equality of people, not only taking care of the interests of each family, country but also the whole world. According to Phan Chau Trinh, in contemporary Vietnamese society, both family morality and national morality, the core part of which is the citizen’s sense of duty to the country, have disappeared. This is the main cause of dehydration. As for the social morality that is being promoted in Western countries, our people have no idea.
In part 1 of the excerpt, the author gets straight to the point and gives a series of negative statements to grab attention and make a strong impression. This is a short and clear way to enter the topic, showing the sharp and sharp thinking of the revolutionary Phan Chau Trinh, the central problem is: In Vietnam, there is no social morality: A true moral society in Our country is absolutely unknown, compared to the moral country, our people are much more ignorant.
In part 2, the author compared the views and perceptions of Europeans with Vietnamese on social morality. The difference lies in the sense of duty between people. European society upholds democracy, values the equality of people, not only cares about each family, each country but also the whole world: France whenever people have power, or the Government , by force that suppresses the private interests of a person or an association, people either plead, or resist, or commandeer, until the time of justice is heard.
The author proves that there is absolutely no social morality in our country with four critical arguments and clear and specific examples:
The first argument: Our people only know how to take care of themselves, do not care about others, are afraid of all kinds of things like a sleeper who doesn’t know anything… does not understand the obligation of humans to live with humans… Not everyone in the country understands anything. Prove: People have their own ears, whoever dies regardless of who! On the way to meet someone who has an accident, meets a weak person who is bullied by a strong person, they also pass by blindly, it seems that the person suffering from that misery does not interfere with him.
The second point: Our people do not know unions, do not respect the common good. In the past, the Vietnamese people also knew about unions and the common good. They also understood that if they knew how to live, they had to defend each other, they knew how to contribute to the wind to make storms, to cut down trees to make forests, not to be alone, careless, and afraid. , as dull as today. The author uses idioms to prove that our ancestors also knew the power of union and unity: No one breaks chopsticks and many hands make a kitchen. But unfortunately, that spirit is no longer there.
The author clearly states that the cause of the people’s ignorance of the masses and the lack of respect for the common good is the reactionary and corrupting feudal system. He exposed the nature of the contemporary kings and officials who deliberately deceived themselves to deceive people to maintain their position and miserable greed:
People do not know the union, do not respect the common good because three or four hundred years ago, the students in the country were greedy for power and title, greedy for the glory of the kings, but were born falsely and flatly, only knowing that there was only King. without knowing there were people. They wanted to keep their pockets full of greed forever and keep their positions stable, so they sought to enforce the law and destroy the nation’s collectives.
The third argument: The king and mandarin oppress the people, only knowing how to plunder and exploit, considering the ignorance of the people as a good condition for consolidating their power and satisfying their greed. They are callous, irresponsible people who don’t care about the interests of the people:
No matter how hard it is to float, no matter how hard it is, as long as there is someone wearing a belt wearing a hat and sitting on it, and someone wearing a black scarf and crouching below, it will be fine for a hundred thousand years!
The author uses many exclamation sentences to express his grief at the dark and cruel reality of the people: The people are wise! What stupid people! People benefit that spend! People harm that spend! The more enslaved the people, the longer the throne, the richer the kings and mandarins!
Outsiders praised the time, family members relied on officials, making rich people unable to compete with the officials. That’s how we look back on our past life! The morality of the upper class – I don’t call them the upper class, I just borrowed two upper class words to make it easy for you to understand – that’s how it is in our country!
The author named the corrupt officials: In the past, they were Confucianists who had obtained bachelor’s and doctor’s degrees; today, they are Western-educated people who have obtained the post of interpreter record; Sometimes the cook, based on the owner’s background, also becomes an official. The above-mentioned mandarins are only an hour more than licensed bandits.
The way the author called the greedy and corrupt mandarins above is extremely accurate and shows his high hatred for the mandarin class of the Southern dynasty. In his thinking and assessment, the tyranny of the monarchy is extremely bad, it is necessary to negate it thoroughly. Besides, the author feels that he must frankly point out the inferiority of his people and his country. In the face of evils, the rulers withdrew from the people, took the people’s rice to buy gardens, built houses, and built houses, and bad people ran up and down to buy mandars and sell them to sit on, eat first, and become bossy. … but people still hold back, do not dare to comment or criticize anything.
The fourth argument: This person looks at the other with strength, sees power, then runs after, bows down, relies on: Those in the garden see the rich, the official also has the smell of being a mandarin. Don’t worry about the mandarin, don’t back it up, run up and down, even if you try to sell buffalo oil, you’ll be happy, just get a position of chief or governor, to sit on top, to eat first, to be bossy. only then. People like that still no one praises, no one despises, how strange! Dear oh! The village has a hundred people, each of whom looks at strength, there is no such thing as morality or morality. That is to say that people in a village are more strict with each other, just as they are with overseas residents. Oh ! With such a people, how can revolutionary ideas arise in their brains! That’s why we don’t have socialism in Vietnam.
The exclamation sentences in the above passage show that the author not only expresses his opinion with a sober mind but also with a heart full of emotions, filled with grief and pain about the tragic stagnation of society. Vietnamese feudal society. Thereby we clearly see the honest, tough and fierce quality of a revolutionary wholeheartedly fighting for democracy and social progress.
According to the author, in order to have social morality, our people must know how to build groups to protect their interests and support each other in life. Must give up the habit of relying on power, end the evil of buying and selling titles in order to get the position to sit on, eat first. The corrupt monarchy and mandarin regime must be overthrown, which corrupts social morality, prevents revolutionary thought from flourishing and our country cannot achieve freedom and independence. What the author suggested in the social situation at that time was very important and urgent.
Phan Chau Trinh said that in order to make a revolution in our country, we must first solve the problem of people’s wisdom, the problem of the people’s democratic consciousness. He considers it the most important thing to do in order to achieve the goal of gaining freedom and independence for the nation. He pondered carefully and found a close relationship between propagating civic consciousness and building up a union with the cause of freedom and independence. The author always aims at the final goal of gaining freedom and independence, but also very alert in choosing the direction. From realizing the painful fact that our country’s people’s intellectual level is too low and the people’s collective consciousness is very poor, which causes many obstacles to the plot to save the country, he called for the building of unions and accompanied by the overthrow of the corrupt monarchy. From there, he came to the conclusion: Now that if Vietnam wants to be free and independent one day, the Vietnamese people must first have a union. But if you want to have a union, there is only better than spreading socialism among the Vietnamese people. The author’s argument is very strong and persuasive.
The excerpt on social morality in our country quite clearly shows the core things that make up the attractiveness of the speech: rigorous reasoning, logic, sincere and warm emotions expressed through the words of exclamation. set; through a resolute stance to overthrow the backward feudal monarchy through a clear and specific plan of action. That shows the sharp and sharp theoretical thinking of the revolutionary Phan Chau Trinh.
From the excerpt, we can see that the author’s mood when writing the above essay is that he hates corrupt mandarins, understands the corruptions of feudalism to the root. Besides, there is compassion for the compatriots and hope for the bright future of the nation once there is a strong union fighting towards positive and progressive socialism.
Phan Chau Trinh has shown a far-sighted vision and sharp thoughts when outlining the situation and solutions to spread socialist morality, building a spirit of solidarity to move towards the cause of freedom and independence. for the Vietnamese people. What Phan Chau Trinh said about the construction of social morality so far still has a certain topical significance. It reminds everyone to uphold the spirit of solidarity and sense of responsibility to the community, for the good future of the country.
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